Structurally the unit is a microprocessor-controlled generator of high frequency electromagnetic impulses with the variable frequency of radio signal level.
The impact of the electromagnetic field breaks the ionic hydration of the salts dissolved in water leading to their crystallization. The following chemical reaction is performed for the main scale component - calcium carbonate:
Ca2+ + 2HCO3- ←→ CaCO3кр + H2O + CO2раст
WaterMill is incompatible with scale inhibitors, these reagents produce opposite affect - they prevent crystallization of the hardness salts.
This produces microcrystals weighted in water in a few microns in size. These microcrystals do not stick to the walls, do not stick and do not deposit on the bottom. They are invisible by eyes, hang in the water and if necessary may be filtered. So the unit prevents scaling.
Besides carbon dioxide dissolved in water forms weak carbon acid H2CO3, that interacting with already existing scale dissolve it gradually. Old deposits are removed gradually within some weeks or months depending on the deposit layer and the water hardness. Due to the fact that old deposits are removed by impact of carbonic acid the unit must not be installed before the tank with the open surface (storage or expansion tank) as in this case the carbon dioxide will evaporate to the atmosphere and old deposits will not be removed.
To use the unit you must choose a place for installation: the unit is installed on the pipe before the place where the water is heated, i.e. before a boiler, a heater or at the input to the system.
As the unit impact causes the crystallization of scale in water, we recommend to install the unit at some distance (at least 10 cm) from the boiler, heat exchanger, filter and so on (not very close) as the process requires some time.
Do not install the unit in front of a cold water storage tank, an expansion tank or a pump - it will cause evaporation of carbon dioxide from water and to atmosphere and old deposits will not be removed.
The unit body is designed for contacting with the surfaces heated to the temperature up to +70ºС. So when installing on the pipe with hotter water it is necessary to lay any non-metallic heat insulator between the body of the unit and the pipe. The layer of the heat insulator does not affect the unit performance. The most important is that the unit will be firmly fixed.